White Holes | Space Time

White Holes | Space Time

This episode is supported by LegalZoom. Lurking in the depths of the mathematics of Einstein’s general relativity is an object even stranger than the mysterious black hole. In fact, it’s the black hole’s mirror twin: the white hole. Some even think that these could be the origin of our universe. The astrophysical phenomenon of the black hole has captured the imagination of scientist and science enthusiast alike for many decades. When the idea first emerged from Einstein’s general theory of relativity, physicists wondered how seriously to take this mathematical description of an inescapable region of spacetime. Astronomers have since demonstrated that black holes are very real, with convincing evidence that quasars, x-ray binaries, even the center of our own Milky Way galaxy harbor these gravitational monstrosities. But the mathematics that predicts the existence of the black hole also describes entities that are even stranger. But whose relationship with reality is still unclear. One such entity is the white hole. A white hole is the “opposite” of a black hole, in a very literal, mathematical sense. In fact, it’s a time-reversed black hole. A black hole is defined as a region of inward-flowing space-time with a one-way boundary called the event horizon, from inside of which nothing can ever escape. That makes a white hole a region of outward-flowing space-time. It also has an event horizon, but that horizon prohibits entry, not exit. Nothing outside a white hole can ever enter, and everything inside must be ejected. Not even light can leave a black hole, hence the whole “black” thing. But light can only leave a white hole. So, these might be expected to radiate like crazy, and “white” would be an understatement. Now, before everyone gets too excited, white holes are probably a figment of mathematical imagination. But they’re a fascinating one. And the idea may help us understand the origin of the universe. White holes first emerged in the very earliest mathematical description of black holes. Only a few months after Einstein published his general theory of relativity, Carl Schwarzhild solved its equations for a very particular case. A single point of mass in an otherwise empty space-time. The resulting Schwarzschild Metric actually describes a black hole, the simplest black hole possible. One without spin, without charge, or without change. An eternal black hole, that doesn’t grow or shrink, and has always existed. We’ve talked quite a bit about the bizarre behavior of space, and especially time, at and below the event horizon of a black hole. Here’s a little playlist if you want a refresher. But here’s the low-down. The time that happens inside a black hole is not part of the past or future history of the outside universe. From the perspective of an outside observer, any events occurring at the event horizon, including falling into it, happen infinitely far in the future. Once you fall into the black hole, the Schwarzschild Metric tells us that space and time switch their roles. The singularity no longer occupies a central location it now occupies an inevitable future time. Now, a real black hole form from the gravitational collapse of a massive star’s core. After the collapse, the “future singularity” comes into being. And in the past, well, there’s just a star. But what does this idealized, eternal black hole look like in the past? If we followed the Schwarzschild Metric back in time, we find something very strange. We find the singularity again, lurking infinitely far in the past. From the point of view of the outside universe, the eternal black hole’s singularity exists in both the infinite future and infinite past. That may sound strange, but it gets stranger. To really understand what this eternal black hole looks like, we’re going to need to use a tool that we’ve already played with: the Penrose diagram. To refresh your memory: In a Penrose diagram, the x and y axes are redefined from space and time to merge space and time into new coordinates. They compactify space-time so that time bunches up towards the edges and the borders correspond to infinite past and future. Also, lines of constant distance and time curve, so that light paths always travel on 45 degree paths. We are hanging out here and now, at the center of the diagram. If we place an eternal black hole far to the left, then the future-left boundary represents the black hole’s event horizon. Any movement to the left brings you closer to that event horizon. The event horizon itself is a 45 degree line. In our weird Penrose coordinates, this represents a constant distance from the center of the black hole. Light traveling at that 45 degree angle takes infinite time to escape the event horizon. And the region beyond that line represents the interior of the black hole. There, the dimensions of space and time switch roles. The once-vertical contours of space are now time-like. And flow inexorably towards the future singularity. These two regions—our universe and the black hole interior—are just the Schwarzschild Metric mapped out using Penrose coordinates. But our map isn’t complete. Remember, this is an eternal black hole, so it must exist in the past Map into the past and we see a time-reflected version of our future black hole. Everything about it is time-reversed. The singularity is a past event. Space within is time-like, but instead of flowing towards the singularity, it flows away. And the event horizon is now a barrier to entry, not to exit. We could make some sense of the behavior of this strange region by using the Penrose diagram. Imagine: that something in our past was traveling at the speed of light and trying to reach the past event horizon. There’s no way it can get there, unless it goes faster than light. Oh, it’ll reach an event horizon, but only the event horizon of our future, where it plunges into a regular black hole. Remember, that all this is from our perspective, far from the event horizon. We can never see anything cross the horizon; the light rays from any crossing reach us infinitely far in the future. Even if the black hole plunge began far in the past. So, the past region of the eternal black hole has an event horizon that’s a barrier to entry. But also, light rays within that region must move up on the diagram. That suggests they must exit into the outside universe. Anything inside the past eternal black hole must be ejected. So far, this region fits perfectly the description of a white hole. The eternal black hole of the past technically is a white hole. However, it’s not one that we can ever observe. For two reasons: One: Light rays exiting that past white hole can never reach us. The past singularity and past event horizon are infinitely far in the past from our point of view. Light has to traverse infinite time to reach our location. And two: there’s no such thing as an eternal black hole. The universe hasn’t existed for eternity, and it didn’t even begin with black holes in place. Even though this type of white hole isn’t observable, some physicists have taken the description very seriously. The math describing the white hole is a perfectly good use of the Schwarzschild Metric. It obeys general relativity. It really is just a black hole, but if viewed backwards in time. Yet general relativity is time-reversal symmetric. Something that can happen forwards in time should also be able to happen in reverse. So, can new white holes actually form? Well, theoretically, yes, but to make one, you need to reverse entropy. See, although it’s possible to build a white hole in general relativity, there are other laws of physics the universe needs to obey, For example, the 2nd law of thermodynamics. It demands that entropy, a measure of disorder, always increase. This law defines the direction of the flow of time. To reverse time, you need to break the law. You need to decrease entropy. Now, this is technically possible because entropy is a statistical phenomenon. Very rare reductions in entropy do happen, as long as globally, entropy increases on average. It’s conceivable that an incredibly rare entropy dip could lead to an effective reversal in time and a white hole could form. However, it would immediately explode in a burst of energy as soon as entropy and time resumed their normal flow. Upwards and forwards. We actually did talk about a case where a random drop in entropy led to something very much like a white hole in this episode. It’s been speculated that the Big Bang itself came from such a profoundly improbable entropy dip. And as it happens, the Big Bang looks, mathematically at least, much like a white hole. It’s an expanding outpouring of space-time, containing a vast amount of energy, and the Bang itself can never be entered. After all, it’s in the past. The difference between the Big Bang and a white hole is that the former possesses no singularity. It happened everywhere at the same time. Still, that hasn’t stopped physicists from having fun with the idea. It’s been proposed that when a black hole forms, a white hole forms on the opposite… “side”. Energy entering the black hole exits the white hole. Physicist Lee Smolin takes it a step further to suggest that the resulting white hole is the Big Bang of a new, baby universe. And that, in fact, our universe formed that way. More on that another time. But speaking of other universes… It turns out that we haven’t finished building our Penrose diagram yet. The past white hole was revealed when we traced the eternal black hole backwards in time. In fact, what we did was to “maximally extend” space-time. We required that all paths be traceable through infinite past and future space, provided they don’t hit the singularity. But what about light rays entering or leaving our eternal black hole from the opposite side? The mathematics of the Schwarzschild Metric describes an entirely independent region of space-time parallel to our own. It looks like an identical alternate universe on the other side of the black hole. Accessible through what we call an Einstein-Rosen bridge – better known as a wormhole. In the not too distant future, we’ll investigate the reality of this mysterious parallel patch of space-time. Thanks to LegalZoom for sponsoring this episode. LegalZoom helps you take care of your legal needs. If you own a business, they can help you with the right formation, plus provide you with many of the tools and resources you need to run it. If you have a family, they can help you create your estate plan through their products and network of attorneys. You can also schedule an attorney consultation for business or personal legal advice through their independent network of attorneys. Without having to leave your home. Legalzoom is offering Space Time viewers 15% off their next purchase from Legalzoom. Go to Legalzoom.com/spacetime or click on the link in the description to learn more.

100 thoughts on “White Holes | Space Time

  1. If the universe is forever expanding and at some point in the universe it expands at the speed of light, does this not tell us that we live in a white hole?? As nothing can get in due to the speed of expansion but everything will eventually be expelled out?

  2. what you just said is one of the most insanely idiotic things I have ever heard. At no point in your rambling, incoherent response, were you even close to anything that could be considered a rational thought. Everyone in this room is now dumber for having listened to it.

  3. The boundaries of what there IS to know are constantly moving goalposts. It's possible some of these things won't be testable, only observable, so it's a waiting game. But we ARE increasing our understanding with each step we take, even when it reveals that there's more we don't know… yet.

  4. Just to throw it out there what if it's the other way around where the black hole puts out the energy and white holes bring em in then lol

  5. So what you're saying is Physicist Lee? Smolen? Believes that all black holes have white holes on the opposite side. I'm no scientist, but I imagine that black holes are like drains all leading to the same place on the opposite 'side', to one white hole. And there is only one white hole that creates the next universe as everything drains into the supermassive black holes that swallow the galaxies. Meh. I'm no scientist.

  6. I’d a white whole needs radiation partials like a white whole,then how does it stay formed if it blows everything away?

  7. Dude I'm looking this for some other reason , I know few people invented time traveling machine by this , dude stop hiding just say what you all actually invented ..

  8. All i see is a semi smart guy who uses a deep smart voice to captivate his audience. Lol jk, dont get defensive comments

  9. This “white hole” , rather the mathematical description, is still describing the same black hole- only from the “inside” looking “out”. When you are already beyond the event horizon, when you look back at the event horizon, all matter, including light, is now escaping- moving Outward from the Event.
    It’s just so logical. We are all such narcissists, that we so often just completely dismiss Perspective. Perspective, in actuality, is the single Most Important variable in ANY and all equations (problems) we encounter. Try taking perspective into consideration next time you and your lover are engaged in domestic warfare…it’ll help.

  10. What if the big bang was a super massive white hole spewing out everything that will ever be swallowed by black holes?
    That way all matter and energy in the universe would be caught in an infinite time loop.

  11. As a student of mathematics, I love physics and use it to formulate my thoughts and conceptualization of mathematical ideas. Logic is trust worthy. What is not trustworthy is our perception of our universe. We have no idea what perceptions are nor how the "outside" reality relates to our perceptions. Therefore, I am never impressed by physicists saying that we "know" things exist or don't exist because things have or have not been "observed". Get the fuck outta here, lol

  12. If you enter a black hole won't the outside universe technically be like a white hole for you since you can't enter it anymore?

  13. Well time isn’t really linear…… our brains are the best quantum machine to perceive it as such. Too find the real answers are we fudging science to our own way to understand it…… the understanding might be so complicatedly simple lol. The theory seems similar to how cells replicate…. God made us of his own image. Look at the smallest of things to understand the larger picture…… Life is crazy isn’t it? Well, enjoy the ride all.

  14. Yeah, whenever I'm watching these amazing space videos sometimes I just wonder "but where could I get an attorney? 🤔"

    Analytics is doing its job!

  15. So what you're saying is Doc was right when he said the DeLorean had to go faster to go back in time? Great Scott! Doc was a genius!

  16. Sorry for asking, a couple questions…. The pemrose diagram, is this a 2D representation, or a 3D representation. Where we are, is that is the middle of a cube or a square?
    Why doesn't an eternal black hole exist? Why is it a consensus all of the sudden, that there isn't an infinite past, is that because of the theory of the big bang? Because IF a multiverse does exist, and that multiverse ISN'T multiple copies of the universe we know of, but multiple universes parallel to ours or even joint with ours, then there could've been multiple big bangs and then the theory of infinite past DOES exist. If we can't see past the observable universe because of the expansion, a multiverse is also theory. According to string theory, a universe can have a maximum of 12 dimensions or it becomes unstable, but even an unstable universe can theoretically exist until it collapses again, but then again string theory is also just theory, just like Einsteins general THEORY of relativity, which is still waiting to be proven inaccurate or incomplete even, because the expansion of our universe IS faster than light. Tachyons are theorized to travel faster than light, we still haven't found dark matter / dark energy but we know it's there and that causes the expansion to accelerate… What if a black hole is causing a rip/hole between our 4 dimension if you count space/time as a dimension to one of more higher dimensions, not necessarily a wormhole to another place in the same universe, but more like the dimensions themselves exhausting dark matter/energy like a black hole spews out 2 jets of several kinds of radiation? As long as we are not sure, all theories are valid until they are proven wrong. Sometimes it takes a very long time, sometimes it's really fast…

  17. i believe the big bang is the ultimate white hole, because of the extreme time distortions, and the mater falling into back holes, exit at the point of the big bang. yes its a circular process that defies time. but this is my hunch.

  18. I don't see how white holes being real is such a far fetched idea when the proof of black holes themselves being real is so recent. I mean, we know they go SOMEWHERE I very much doubt the other side of a black hole is another black hole when the man himself suggested white holes?😅 does that make sense… idk😂😂 YAY SCIENCE!😀

  19. But what if black holes are like barriers that convert normal matter into their quantum wave function analogues, perturbing the Higgs field?

  20. we could be recycled over and over , we go into a black hole ,out of a white hole so then our future becomes our past , is the dog chasing its own tale or is the tale chasing the dog?

  21. until we get out there and see these things for ourselves we can never really know….. what we think we see are other stars and galaxies but there could be white holes among the mix….

  22. If black holes do in fact lead to a white hole, if the white hole is not in a different universe, but in instead in another part of the galaxy, that means they would glow white only if the coresponding black hole is getting matter.

  23. If light traveled outwards to space and has a speed boost because of the ‘white hole’ then wouldn’t it be a tachyon?

  24. If there is a parallel universe on the other side of the black hole, better hope its not the one where Spock has a beard, or anyone visiting there is going to get to see the inside of an Agony Booth. Long Live The Empire!

  25. The math is very hard but the concept is simple. Space is dark. Let's think of it as dark water. It acts as a fluid. Take a needle and poke a hole in space. This creates a hole all the black water drains into. When water drains in a sink it creates a vortex, the water spins as it drain and it accelerates as it gets closer to the center of the drain hole. This is observable in a sink . Water spins creating a conical shape of striated ripply water. The striations resemble layers currents moving as different speeds and having ridges. This is a 3d shape not 2d. A 3d vortex is many circles in inside of each other with each inner circle lower than the circles outside it and higher than the circles inside it.

    It works like this: The biggest circle is the most outside circle. Let's call it c1.
    If there are 10 circles c1 has a diameter of 10 and a speed of 1. I am making up numbers for illustration, these are not actual.

    c= diameter,speed. Of ten circles:
    c1= 10,1
    c2= 9,2
    c3= 8,3
    c4= 7,4
    c5 = 6,5
    c6= 5,6
    c7= 4,7
    c8= 3,8
    c9= 2,9
    c10= 1,10

    This resembles ten rings stacked vertically. From the biggest ring you start at ring c1. going to c2 moves you down a level. Every time you go to a smaller ring you are going deeper into the hole.
    Water flowing down a drain behaves this way. The rings get smaller as you get closer to the drain, water speeds up as it reaches deeper rings, each ring is a level lower than the previous ring.

    A black hole acts like water going down a drain. Water down a drain has to empty somewhere, out of a spout somewhere. White holes are the exit of space flowing into a black hole and out the white hole. This is like water going down the drain, through a pipe, and out an exit spout.

    A tornado is a vortex that acts like a white hole, I think. At the bottom of a tornado the rings shrink to zero, as fluids are a continuous quantity (they have no fixed shape with clear separations(like time or air)). Let's say a tornado is a few feet off the ground and it is tall and slender, it has a tall height but a narrow ring at the highest point. If we approach it from the ground the spin factor is very weak. This means the small ring is moving slowly. As we go up rings they get bigger and their spin factor increases. At a certain spin factor the force of air moving is so strong it pulls us in and we can not escape. This is known as the point of no return. The highest ring in a tornado is it's strongest. It is moving the fastest because it has more mass (it is bigger). More mass means more volume and more volume means more pressure (relativity speaking).

    Space is a continuous quantity like water. It behaves and acts as a fluid. It follows certain principles of fluid mechanics. Fluid mechanics are used to describe phenomena of certain quantum mechanics. Fluids are things like light, waves, and optics of all kinds.

    A black hole is a hole in space that is layered in rings of decreasing size from the outermost to the innermost. Think of a black hole like it is shaped like capital V. The top big and weak, the bottom strong and squishing everything and accelerating time and mass.

    Black hole sucks everything in white hole spits everything out.
    Water drains into a drain creating a vortex weakest at it's furthest regions and strongest at its most singular point (a dimensionless dot at the center).
    Water exits some spout. In fluid mechanics the water is spraying 360 degrees in 3 dimensions,gravity and pressure notwithstanding. Bear with me. Without a vacuum this doesn't work.
    As water exits into a vacuum space it is pulled this way. It creates a vortex that is strongest at its outermost region and weakest at its singularity, also called zero point origin.

    You get a hourglass shape similar to a double tornado. This is a hyperbola. In the hourglass shape you have a V on top of an inverted V, making an X if you like.
    At the center you have the singularity named for its single point or dot origin.
    If it is two funnels together then the singularity has zero dimensions as everything is squished into zero dimension space. This contradicts above statements. Maybe Pascal was wrong about certain things.

    The pressure of exiting water at the exit or white hole would have to be stronger near the singularity and weaker from it. This poses some questions.
    If velocity increases near the singularity then we speed up as we enter deeper into the black hole. Exiting through a white hole starts AT the singularity and moves away from it.
    You decelerate as you move away from the white hole.

    More fake numbers:

    A black hole has three rings (circle 1,2,3) each 6 miles long from each boundary. The center ring has diameter 12. It's boundary is 6 miles from the center dot (singularity).
    Point of no escape = 0. 0+6+6+6 = center of black hole.
    If we consider a black hole having an average acceleration for each ring it would look something like:
    We cross the point of no return. We suddenly accelerate from c1 to c2. The trip took 10 minutes and we traveled 6 miles. We say we traveled 60mph.
    As we cross the boundary separating c1 from c2 we are suddenly accelerated faster as we are caught in a stronger gravitational current. This holds true for tornadoes and sinkholes (fluid mechanics).
    From c2 to c3 we traveled another 6 miles but the faster speed made us finish in only 1 minute. We we going on average 600mph because we were travelling 10 times faster.
    We cross the boundary of c2,c3 and accelerate again. To the singularity we travel 6 miles and it takes 1 second. This means that we were travelling 36,000mph.

    In terms of diameter:
    c1= 12 miles
    c2= 24 miles. 2c1= (2·12) = 24
    c3= 48 miles. 4 c1 and 2c2= (4·12) = 48 and (2·24)= 48

    Our boundaries are:

    c1 to singularity: 6 miles. This is the radius of circle 1.
    c2 to c1 = 6 miles. To the singularity it 6+6=12
    c3 to c2 = 6 miles. To the singularity is 6+6+6= 18

    Speed is:

    c1= 60mph over 6 miles= 10 minutes.
    c2= 600mph over 6 miles= 1 minutes.
    c3= 36,000mph over 6 miles= 1 second.

    If I am going 60 miles per hour for 10 minutes then: 60mph/ 1/6 of an hour = 10 minutes. Likewise 60mph / 6 miles = 10 minutes. There is interesting cancelling of the variables.
    Using this scale we can figure that: 1 minute is 1/10 of 10 minutes so we are going ten times faster because we are finishing in 1/10 the time. 60mph·10= 600mph.
    If 600mph finishes in 1 minute finishing in 1 second is= 1 minute is 60 times 1 second, so 60 times faster is 60·600mph= 36,000.

    I like the double funnel example. skinny middle big ends. The universe started at two atoms smashing and causing the big bang. The big bang was created by a white hole. The white hole is at the center of our universe. Our universe is forever expanding at the sped of light. We can never travel faster than the speed of light so we can never reach the center of the universe. Because it is expanding there is a boundary ring called the observable universe. Outside this boundary we can not see this part of the universe because the light it gives off travels towards us as fast as we are moving away from us. As such the light we never reach us and we will never see it. We will never see that light. There can only be one white hole (God sic creator sicsic) for our universe with infinite black holes (demons destroyers) creating infinite white hole singularities creating infinite universes. Religion and Illuminati is why you either are stupid and don't get it or think being woke or 5th dimensional is a replacement for math. All the lies and deceit. I blame PBS because they deliberately lied in the last videos and owe me a cookbook.

    Every black hole creates a white hole. Every white hole is a big bang. Every bi bang it two quantum particles doing something I can not explain. It is like a rip in space time but in reverse. It is not something ripped but something made in empty space like drawing on a blank paper. It either is coming together to pull apart. The difference between fission and fusion. So probably fission is a black hole that exits a white hole as fusion. God is nothing more than a white hole at the center of our universe that exists outside the observable universe because the universe it ever expanding at a rate that what ever is happening at a given second out side the boundary will never reach us.

    The devil is simply a black hole that destroys stars and planets literally entire world's. Since there are countless black holes there are countless demons. This ties in with the world religions that were created to destroy scince and math so that peole were stupid. College is just masonry keeping the faggots and prison is just murdering the straights.

  26. So what this is saying is that once a black hole has begun to devour a planet or star then it should never lose it’s accretion disk. Because once the planet or star appears to have crossed the event horizon we permanently see it as it will take infinity for it to disappear. Thus the only naked black hole: I.e. one without an accretion disk, is a black hole that has never “eaten”.

  27. this is great ASMR. i really enjoyed your voice. Make more videos. You can also eat or comb someones hair while talking. That would be nice too. Thank you so much.

  28. Hold up – White holes give life to the universe while the black holes destroy everything around them!? This does not seem a bit racist at all.

  29. Ok, dude, you just summed up things about black holes that are not true of Hawking radiation. Not one of those applied. Perhaps, Hawking radiation is a consequence of matter being torn apart just before going in, and being drawn to the poles by magnetic field of it's rotation. I'm still guessing. Maybe you'll cover it here any minute.

  30. Dude, there are plenty of examples that defy entropy. The formation of crystals, for one. Thus entropy is no law. The universe began in chaos, now matter has collected into spheres, the simplest of shapes, defined by a single number, it's radius cubed.

  31. I believe that when you go through a black hole or you get crushed, but maybe if you survive you come out the white hole?

  32. I think he doesn’t understand what he is talking about…because he can’t explain it in a way anyone can understand it.

  33. Only once you know all the mechanisms of this realm can you extrapolate the mechanism of it creation. For all we know, we can only see the most minuscule amt. of the universe. Let’s not say that we could extrapolate anything from that. Determinations from small samples are very scientific. They Are quite driven by hubris, though.

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