[10분상식 세계백과 독일 2부: 정치, 경제, 독일GDP, 독일사회

[10분상식 세계백과 독일 2부: 정치, 경제, 독일GDP, 독일사회


[10 minute Common Knowledge World Encyclopedia] Hello, everyone. This is 10-minute Common Knowledge
World Encyclopedia. 4. politics As of October 3, 1990, East Germany
which had been a socialist nation decided to be incorporated into West Germany
which adopted liberal democracy and this resulted in the reunification of Germany. Following the reunification of East and West Germany
which had different political systems the first parliament sessions of the united Germany were held in the Reichstag Building in
Berlin on October 4, 1990 and the first general election took place in December. The unified Federal Republic of Germany follows
the system of liberal socialism based on the trias politica which separates
legislation, execution and jurisdiction which was founded on
the Basic Law established in 1949. Germany is a country which
established the Weimar constitution in 1919 which is known to be the most rational and
democratic constitution in the world. German constitutional law,
developed from the Weimar constitution had many effects on a lot of
democratic countries around the world. Germany has a very advanced federal politics system due to its federal system which has continued from the Heiliges Römisches Reich (Holy Roman Empire). Germany consisted of 11 states before
the reunification and 16 after the reunification. Since state power like
legislation execution or jurisdiction is evenly distributed to the central government and
the local authorities the relationship between the central government and
the local authorities is not lopsided but interdependently harmonious. Currently, Germany follows the bicameral system adopting the parliamentary cabinet system
with the two chambers, Bundestag and Bundesrat. The leader of the majority party in Bundestag becomes the Chancellor, forming Bundeskabinett(the cabinet). Members of the federal parliament are elected through party-list proportional representation system which is a combination of the proportional representation system and the single-member constituency system. Their term in office is 4 years, and there are a total of
709 members of the federal parliament. The Bundespräsident
who is the head of state of Germany is elected from the indirect voting from Bundesversammlung (Federal Convention), with the term of 5 years and can be re-elected. The Chancellor who is the head of the federal government and has all the actual powers is in office for 4 years and can be reelected as well. The Chancellor is the chief in government operation, as well as the core member in politics and execution. That is why we sometimes call German politics system as the chancellor democracy. The current President of Germany is Frank-Walter Steinmeier who has been in
office since 2017. He was the floor leader of the Social Democratic Party as well as the Minister of Foreign Affairs. The current Chancellor of Germany is Angela Merkel who was appointed in 2005 as
the first ever female chancellor of Germany and is considered as one of
the most powerful political figures in the world. The main parties of Germany are Christian Democratic Union (CDU) which traditionally speaks for the right and Social Democratic Party (SPD)
which speaks for the left. The unified Germany after the reunification became strengthened politically and economically during the period of
establishing international order after the cold war, and hence is being requested domestically and internationally of its necessary diplomatic roles. Chancellor Angela Merkel’s government who considered restoring Germany’s relationship with the United States and strengthening the European integration
the two key areas of diplomacy worked to enhance the political state of Germany. As part of such work, Germany focused on its activities as Presidency of the Council of the EU in 2007, and Presidency of the Council of G20 in 2017. Germany continued to take the leading role in the extension of and strengthening the EU and actively be involved in global issues such as
environment, human rights, and terrorism. 5. economy German government after
losing the WWII from 1950 to 1973 followed the principle of laissez-faire (let-alone) which is based on the free market economy. As a result, they achieved
the annual average growth rate of 5.9%, which is known as Wirtschaftswunder or
the Miracle on the Rhine, and Germany developed into
a exemplary nation in terms of economic growth, employment, price level, as well as
the state of the nation’s finances. At the basis of this kind of growth were the US’s Marshall Plan which supported Germany financially, diligence of the German people,
high technical standards and sharp advancement of industrial production. However, in the 1970s, due to its stagnant labor market, generous social welfare system, and high tax burden, it suffered economically. Following this was the huge cost of
reunification in the 1990s. In 1991, right before the reunification, the GDP per capita in East Germany was only 42% of that in West Germany. Also, due to issues such as skills and
tools fallen behind and environment pollution, huge investments were inevitable in order for
even development on both sides to take place. Germany invested an annual average of
more than 100 billion German marks in order to boost industrial infrastructure and employment in East Germany’s
telecommunication, transport, and construction. With the continued work from the government, the export industry contributed a lot in reducing the cost of reunification and reactivating the economy. In late 1999, Germany’s exports increased the economy got stabilized and
the unemployment rate lowered resulting in significant improvements to
the economic state of Germany. Germany is a very important country in
the international economy being the 4th largest economy of the world in terms of the GDP ranking, as well as one of the 3 countries in which the sum of exports and
imports exceed 1 trillion dollars. In its highly industrialized economic structure car, electronic, mechanic and
chemical industries play big roles. Manufacturing takes up to 30% of the total industries, and their competitiveness is among
the best in the world with high productivity and
advanced technological standards. Such advanced technology of
Germany is well observed in car industry, which can be seen as the symbol of modern technology. The local high quality car brands such as Volkswagen, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Audi produce high value-added products internationally due to their excellent quality and performance. In particular, recently they have taken over
many famous car brands around the world and you can pretty much say that the high class car market is led by the German capital. Germany has the number one competitiveness in
the mechanical industry as well. Machinery and equipment manufacturing is the leading sector that creates more jobs domestically, and hence the high productivity. Rheinmetall, Carl Zeiss, MAN, Siemens, and Bosch are the companies with
the best technical skills in each field. Also, in the recent years, Germany has been playing the important role as the center of the high-tech market, and it has been developing important future industries such as electronics, robotics,
advanced materials and software. Not only focusing on global enterprises, Germany has laid a firm foundation for
small and medium sized enterprises as well. More than 3 million small and medium
sized enterprises are taking part in handcraft, manufacturing,
wholesale and retail, and tourism. Small and medium sized enterprises comprise 99% of the total number of enterprises,
70% of the total employment and 30% of the total sales forming the fundamentals of the German economy. 6. natural environment & society Germany has the 7th biggest land area in Europe with
its location at the center of Europe. Due to its location, 9 different countries
are surrounding Germany and it has the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the north. Geographically, it gets lower as you go northwards, this is because of the Alps Mountains
which are located at the southern region. In contrast, in the northern region, it has endless plains, also known as Norddeutsches Tiefland or
the North German Plain. The main rivers include the Danube which
flows to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea the Rhein, the Wese, the Elbe, and the Oder. There are two main climates in Germany:
the maritime climate in the northwest regions and the continental climate in the southeast regions. Winters are cold and dry Summers are warm but show unpredictable weather. Like Korea, there are 4 distinct seasons but what’s different from the common knowledge is that the southern regions are colder than
the northern regions during winter. Germany has one of
the world’s highest standard of living having ranked at 6th in terms of UN’s Human Development Index (HDI)
out of 187 countries in 2014. Germany is the most populous in the European Union and also one of the countries with
the high population density. Germany is so highly industrialized that it’s difficult to look for regions which are underdeveloped, and around 30% of the population lives in
its 80 big cities. Cities like Munich, Dusseldorf, and Frankfurt have good jobs, clean environment,
low crime rate, and excellent traffic network. Also, Germany is one of the countries with the most excellent research organizations and universities, and has produced the 3rd largest number of Nobel prize laureates in the world, having won more than 80. In particular, Germany has shown great advancement in physics and mechanical engineering. This is the result of the wholehearted support from
the German government, as well as the interconnection between universities, labs in corporations, and research organizations. After 2014, the tuition fees in
every region have been abolished, so any talented individual is able to
receive tertiary education. Universities that represent Germany such as Technical University of Munich and University of Heidelberg are usually ranked high in the
Times Higher Education World University Rankings. and also the top want-to-go universities of
international students. German language is the most widely
spoken language in the EU. It is an Indo-Germanic language, 130 million people living in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Luxembourg, Belgium, and Liechtenstein speak German as a native or second language. But in Germany, you can generally
communicate in English quite well and Turkish is also spoken
a lot too due to the Turkish immigrants.

15 thoughts on “[10분상식 세계백과 독일 2부: 정치, 경제, 독일GDP, 독일사회

  1. 편집하느라 많이 힘드셨을텐데 예쁜편집 잘 보고갑니다^^ㅎㅎ 앞으로 필요한 정보나 지식을 많이 보고 배울것같습니다!
    독일의 등록금이 폐지되었다는 점이 부럽네요 ㅎㅎ

  2. 독일 강인한 정신력 이 있는
    민족이라는 이미지 있어요
    정말 조목조목
    잘만드셨네요~~

  3. 독일정보를 시각적으로 표현하니 눈이 피로하지 않습니다. 강국 독일의 모든 것 잘 보았습니다.

  4. 정말 멋진 채널이네요~ 조사의 양이나 질적인 면에서 엄청나네요. 정치,경제,자연 기후 등 뭐하나 소홀히 하신것이 없어 엄지 척입니다.
    예전 프랑크프르트에서 6개월정도 살 기회가 있었는데, 이민을 간다면 독일은 어떨까 하고 생각을 지금도 많이 합니다. 이런 좋은 채널을 알게되서 너무 좋습니다. 앞으로도 알람설정해 놓고 꾸준히 시청하도록 하겠습니다. 아마 좀 더 박학다식한 쌍둥이 아빠가 될 수 있는 기회겠네요 ^^

  5. 끝까지 들어보면서
    머리속에 담아보지만
    돌아서면 까먹고 말죠~
    잘 들습니다 👍👍👍

  6. 분단국가로서 독일의 평화적 통일이 부럽기만 합니다. 베를린 장벽이 한 순간에 무너진거죠 ~

  7. 같은 분단 국가였는데 평화통일되고 경제도 발전시킨 것이 지금 우리나라 현실로 보면 본 받아야 할 나라네요 부러운건 세계 제일의 자동차가 하나가 아니고 여러 브랜드라 세계 제일을 골라 타는 맛^^ 다방면으로 연구 많이 하셨네요

  8. 오오 잘 봤습니다. 지방정부와 무게가 고루 갖춰진거랑 상관있는지 모르겠는데, 부동산도 특이하게 각 지역별로 고루 발달한 몇 안되는 나라중에 하나더라구요!

  9. 광고 다보는 열렬 구독자입니다 ! ㅎㅎ 독일에 대한 지식을 또 쌓고갑니다 감사해요 ~~ ㅎㅎ자유주의적 사회민주주의!!! 이런 것도 있었네요

  10. 독일 경제나 환경같은 건 자세하게 들어볼 기회가 없었는데 10분만에 쏙쏙 들어오네요👍👍

  11. 하핫…이거 저는 독일어로 배웠던 내용들,,,한국말로 들으니 너무 반갑네요.^^;;

  12. 유럽의 강국인 독일이야기 잘 봤습니다.
    메르켈총리는 수수한 외모와 다르게 참 능력자인 것 같습니다.
    머리 만지는데 시간을 안들이려고 단발스타일을 고수한다고 하던데요…

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